A variety of chemical and nuclear processes create airglow, including cosmic rays striking the upper atmosphere and atoms combining together and emitting photons.
Each different activity produces a distinct color. The yellow color is generated when meteors break up in the atmosphere, leaving a layer of sodium atoms that produce golden light. The adjacent green layer comes from nitrogen and oxygen combining in a process that spits out green photons. Red emissions, seen higher up, come from excited –OH ions while a faint blue luminescence is formed by excited oxygen molecules.
The video also incorporates mesmerizing shots of the more familiar green ribbons known as auroras. These are a separate phenomenon created when charged particles from the sun slam into the upper atmosphere.
Further reading: http://www.auroranightglow.blogspot.com/